A. Questions and auxiliary verbs
- Types of sentences: statements, interrogative, negative, exclamatory, imperative.
- Word Order in the English sentences.
- Auxiliary verbs: “to be”, have/has (got), can, Do/Does
- Types of questions: general, special, alternative, tag (do you? isn't it? etc.), indirect: Do you know where ...? She asked me where ...
B. Active Tenses
1 Present simple (I do)- general statements of factand timeless truths; habitual or everyday activities
- Persons: ending “s” with he, she, it
- Time expressions: always, usually, habitually
- Future time in a sentence concerning events that are on a definite schedule or timetable: open, close, begin, end, start, finish, arrive, leave, come, return
2 Past simple (I did) - At one particular time in the past, this happened. It began and ended in the past
- Time expressions
- Regular verbs: pronunciation of -edendings; irregular verbs: an alphabetical list
- Troublesome verbs: Raise, set, and lay - transitive; Rise, sit, andlie areintransitive
- Used to (do) / would
- (be used to V+ing for present habits)
- Before/after peculiarities
3 Future simple
- Shall and will.
- Will or be going to
- making a prediction (bothWill andbe going to)
- a prior plan (be going to)
- willingness (will)
- Will or be going to is NOT used in a time clause
- time clause: when and if, after, as soon as, until, while
4 Present continuous (I am doing):
- Formation of progress tenses: to be+V+ing
- activity that is in progress at the moment of speaking.: now
- In progress around the present: these days, at the moment
- Limited period around the present: this week, this month, this year
- Situations which are changing/developing around the present: children are growing up quickly
- States: conditions or situations that exist.
- List of stative verbs not used in progressive tenses
- PrCont to express future (plans)
- Using progressive verbs with always to complain, i.e., to express annoyance or anger
5 Past continuous (I was doing)
- one action began earlier and was in progress when the other action occurred
(a) I was walking down the street when it began to rain,
(b) While I was walking down the street, it began to rain.
(c) Rita was standing under a tree when it began to rain.
( d ) At eight o'clock last night, I was studying.
(e) Last year at this time, I was attending school.
- two actions are in progress simultaneously: While I was studying in one room of our apartment, my roommate was having a party in the other room.
6 Future Continuous - activity that will be in progress at a time in the future
(?) The progressive form of be going to:
be going to + be + -ing
7 Present perfect
- Formation: have\has + Part II
- Something happened (or never happened) before now, at an unspecified time in the past
- Time expressions: the adverbs ever, never, already, yet, still, and just
- The repetition of an activity before now
- the difference between since and for:
since+ a particular time
for + a duration of time
- A general activity in progress: recently, lately
8 Past perfect
- an activity that was completed before another activity or time in the past
- “After” and “Before” in the Past simple and past perfect
9 Future perfect - activity that will be completed before another time or event in the future.
by the time introduces a time clause; the simple present is used in a time clause
10 Present perfect continuous (I have been doing) - Theduration of an activity that began in thepast and continues to the present.
- time words: since,all morning, all day, all week.
- little or no difference in meaning between the two tenses when since or for is used
11 Past perfect continuous (I had been doing)- duration of an activity that was in progress before another activity or time in the past.
12 Future perfect progressive - the duration of an activity that will be in progress before another time or event in the future.
The United States is big.The Philippines consists of more than 7,000 islands.The United Nations has its headquarters in New York City.
The news is interesting.Mathematics is easy for her. Physics is easy for her too. Diabetes is an illness.
Expressions of time, money, and distance usually require a singular verb: Eight hours of sleep is enough.Ten dollars is too much to pay.Five thousand miles is too far to travel.
People,* police, and cattle do not end in - "S", but are plural nouns and require plural verbs.
Articles: A, An,
Simple present tense
Simple past tense
Simple future tense
Will/Be going to
Present progressive/continuous tense
Past progressive/continuous tense
Future progressive/continuous tense
Present perfect tense
Past perfect tense
Future perfect tense
Present perfect progressive/continuous tense
Past perfect progressive/continuous tense
Future perfect progressive/continuous tense
Modals (auxiliary verbs)
The passive voice
Asking /Answering questions
Plural form (nouns)
Adjectives and adverbs
There is - there are
Much - many - few - little - some - any - no
Phrasal verbs (Idioms)