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Головна » Статті » English Grammar

Subjects to learn

Module 1

A. Questions and auxiliary verbs

  • Types of sentences: statements, interrogative, negative, exclamatory, imperative.
  • Word Order in the English sentences.
  • Auxiliary verbs: “to be”, have/has (got), can, Do/Does
  • Types of questions: general, special, alternative, tag (do you? isn't it? etc.), indirect: Do you know where ...? She asked me where ...

B. Active Tenses

1 Present simple (I do)- general statements of factand timeless truths; habitual or everyday activities

  • Persons: ending “s” with he, she, it
  • Time expressions: always, usually, habitually
  • Future time in a sentence concerning events that are on a definite schedule or timetable: open, close, begin, end, start, finish, arrive, leave, come, return

2 Past simple (I did) - At one particular time in the past, this happened. It began and ended in the past

  • Time expressions
  • Did
  • Regular verbs: pronunciation of -edendings; irregular verbs: an alphabetical list
  • Troublesome verbs: Raise, set, and lay - transitiveRise, sit, andlie areintransitive
  •   Used to (do) / would
  • (be used to V+ing for present habits)
  • Before/after peculiarities

3 Future simple

  • Shall and will.
  • Will or be going to
  • making a prediction (bothWill andbe going to)
  • a prior plan (be going to)
  • willingness (will)
  • Will or be going to is NOT used in a time clause
  • time clause: when and if, after, as soon as, until, while

4 Present continuous (I am doing):

  • Formation of progress tenses: to be+V+ing
  • activity that is in progress at the moment of speaking.: now
  • In progress around the present: these days, at the moment
  • Limited period around the present: this week, this month, this year
  • Situations which are changing/developing around the present: children are growing up quickly
  • States: conditions or situations that exist.
  • List of stative verbs not used in progressive tenses
  • PrCont to express future (plans)
  • Using progressive verbs with always to complain, i.e., to express annoyance or anger

5 Past continuous (I was doing)

  • one action began earlier and was in progress when the other action occurred

(a) I was walking down the street when it began to rain,

(b) While I was walking down the street, it began to rain.

(c) Rita was standing under a tree when it began to rain.

( d ) At eight o'clock last night, I was studying.

(e) Last year at this time, I was attending school.

  • two actions are in progress simultaneously: While I was studying in one room of our apartment, my roommate was having a party in the other room.

 

6 Future Continuous - activity that will be in progress at a time in the future

(?) The progressive form of be going to:

be going to + be + -ing

 

7 Present perfect

  • Formation: have\has + Part II
  • Something happened (or never happened) before now, at an unspecified time in the past
  • Time expressions: the adverbs ever, never, already, yet, still, and just
  • The repetition of an activity before now
  • the difference between since and for:

                                            since+ a particular time

                                            for + a duration of time

  • A general activity in progress: recently, lately

 

8 Past perfect

  • an activity that was completed before another activity or time in the past
  • “After” and “Before” in the Past simple and past perfect

 

9 Future perfect - activity that will be completed before another time or event in the future.

by the time introduces a time clause; the simple present is used in a time clause

 

10 Present perfect continuous (I have been doing) - Theduration of an activity that began in thepast and continues to the present.

  • time words: since,all morning, all day, all week.
  • little or no difference in meaning between the two tenses when since or for is used

 

11 Past perfect continuous (I had been doing)- duration of an activity that was in progress before another activity or time in the past.

 

12 Future perfect progressive - the duration of an activity that will be in progress before another time or event in the future.

 

Singular Verbs

The United States is big.The Philippines consists of more than 7,000 islands.The United Nations has its headquarters in New York City.

The news is interesting.Mathematics is easy for her. Physics is easy for her too. Diabetes is an illness.

Expressions of time, money, and distance usually require a singular verb: Eight hours of sleep is enough.Ten dollars is too much to pay.Five thousand miles is too far to travel.

 

Plural Verbs

People,* police, and cattle do not end in - "S", but are plural nouns and require plural verbs.

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Articles: A, An,

Simple present tense

Simple past tense

 

Simple future tense

Will/Be going to

Present progressive/continuous tense

 

Past progressive/continuous tense

Future progressive/continuous tense

 

Present perfect tense

Past perfect tense

Future perfect tense

Present perfect progressive/continuous tense

 

Past perfect progressive/continuous tense

Future perfect progressive/continuous tense

 

Imperative

 

Modals (auxiliary verbs)

 

The passive voice

Question words

Asking /Answering questions

 

Possessive ending

Plural form (nouns)

 

Adjectives and adverbs

Possessive adjective

There is - there are

Personnal pronouns

 

Possessive

 

Reflexive pronouns

 

Demonstrative pronouns

 

Relative pronouns

 

Much - many - few - little - some - any - no

 

Prepositions

 

Comparisons/superlative

 

Capitalisation

Gerunds/infinitives

Direct/indirect speach

 

Connecting words

 

Phrasal verbs (Idioms) 

Категорія: English Grammar | Додав: Tan (29.06.2014)
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