Головна | Важливі матеріали | Реєстрація | Вхід
Середа, 20.02.2019, 22:49
Вітаю Вас Гість | RSS
Меню сайту
Категорії розділу
Writing Spot [14]
Word-Lists [5]
Word-Lists for General English Course - 1 Year
English Grammar [26]
Grammar Rules

Онлайн всього: 1
Гостей: 1
Користувачів: 0
Форма входу
Головна » Статті » Writing Spot



How to write a summary for a text

Definition: Summary (Ukr.розширена анотація)  is a shortened version of a text that highlights its key points.


The primary purpose of a summary is to "give an accurate, objective representation of what the work says." As a general rule, "you should not include your own ideas or interpretations" (Paul Clee and Violeta Clee, American Dreams, 1999).


1. A summary begins with an introductory sentence that states the article's title and author.

2. A summary must contain the main thesis or standpoint of the text, restated in your own words. (To do this, first find the thesis statement in the original text.)

3. A summary is written in your own words. It contains few or no quotes.

4. A summary is always shorter than the original text, often about 1/3 as long as the original.  It is the ultimate fat-free writing.  An article or paper may be summarized in a few sentences or a couple of paragraphs. A book may be summarized in an article or a short paper.  A very large book may be summarized in a smaller book.

5. A summary should contain all the major points of the original text, and should ignore most of the fine details, examples, illustrations or explanations.

6. The backbone of any summary is formed by crucial details (key names, dates, events, words and numbers). A summary must never rely on vague generalities.

7. If you quote anything from the original text, even an unusual word or a catchy phrase, you need to put whatever you quote in quotation marks (" ... ").

8. A summary must contain only the ideas of the original text. Do not insert any of your own opinions, interpretations, deductions or comments into a summary.

9. A summary, like any other writing, has to have a specific audience and purpose, and you must carefully write it to serve that audience and fulfill that specific purpose.


An effective summary:

  • Begins with an introductory sentence that states the article's title and author and restates its thesis or focus.
  • Includes all of the article's main points and major supporting details
  • Deletes minor and irrelevant details.
  • Combines/chunks similar ideas
  • Paraphrases accurately and preserves the article's meaning.
  • Uses student's own wording and sentence style.
  • Uses quotation marks when using phrasing directly from the article or source.
  • Includes only the article's ideas; excludes personal opinion.
  • Reflects article's emphasis and purpose.
  • Recognizes article's organization.
  • Stays within appropriate length; is shorter than the original.
  • Achieves transition through use of author's name and present-tense verb.
  • Has few or no mechanical errors.


Use logical connectors (such as further, also, in addition, furthermore, moreover, etc), reporting verbs (if necessary) and the following patterns to continue the summary:

  • In the third chapter of the book, the author goes on to say…
  • Aspects of … are discussed.
  • Special attention / consideration is given to…
  • The author (or his name) concludes that…


Useful phrases for writing a summary:

Beginning a summary:


In his/her article    ...........            , author (name)



examines the problem of


concentrates on analyzing





The author .............., in the  article/ book



deals with






proposes a new approach to.


Категорія: Writing Spot | Додав: Tan (18.05.2015)
Переглядів: 323
Всього коментарів: 0
Друзі сайту

Copyright MyCorp © 2019Створити безкоштовний сайт на uCoz