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LINKING Words

Writing phrases

and linking words

To State the Reasons

  • There are different reasons why it ... 
  • There are several explanations for ... 
  • There are many positive/negative reasons for ... 
  • There are some/more/fewer benefits/disadvantages to ...

To Give an Opinion

  • (Why) I believe
  • I’d like to explain why
  • Personally
  • I’d enjoy
  • I would prefer
  • I think
  • In my opinion
  • As far as I’m concerned
  • It seems to me
  • I suggest

To Set Up a Condition

  • If
  • Even if
  • If I could
  • Whether (or not)
  • . . .may/might
  • . . .can be

To Further the Argument

  • First (of all) . . . Second . . .Third
  • Firstly ... Secondly ... Thirdly
  • In addition
  • There are three reasons why
  • Similarly
  • Furthermore
  • Moreover
  • Further
  • As an example
  • For instance
  • What’s more
  • Not only . . . but also
  • . . . including
  • More than
  • Also
  • . . . coupled with
  • Both . . . and

To Summarize / Conclude

  • In conclusion
  • Finally
  • As a result (of)
  • In summary
  • Therefore
  • To sum up
  • In other words
  • To summarize
  • Then
  • In brief
  • On the whole
  • To conclude
  • As we have seen
  • As has been said

To Restate or Repeat an Argument

  • To put it differently
  • To repeat
  • Namely
  • That is
  • In other words

To Show Cause/Reason and Effect/Result

  • Consequently
  • Because (of)
  • Due to
  • Thanks to
  • If this occurs, then
  • To this end
  • Since
  • For this reason
  • As a result
  • Caused by

To Show Time Relationships

  • Immediately
  • Then
  • Later
  • Afterwards
  • After
  • Before
  • While
  • During
  • As soon as
  • As
  • Sometimes
  • Last
  • Frequently
  • When
  • Once
  • Often
  • Oftentimes

To Generalize

  • Overall
  • For the most part
  • In general
  • Generally speaking
  • By and large

To Show Contrast/Make an Exception

  • Some may argue that
  • Although
  • Even though
  • Whereas
  • Instead
  • In contrast
  • On the one hand
  • On the other hand
  • However
  • In spite of
  • Despite
  • Unlike
  • On the contrary
  • But
  • Yet
  • Rather than
  • Either
  • Or
  • Nor
  • Neither
  • Either . . . or
  • Neither . . . nor
  • Nevertheless
  • Nonetheless
  • Sometimes
  • Once in a while
  • Occasionally
  • Some…other(s)
  • Other(s)
  • Often
  • None

To Emphasize

  • Above all
  • Obviously
  • Clearly
  • Evidently
  • Actually
  • In fact
  • Certainly
  • Definitely
  • Extremely
  • Indeed
  • Absolutely
  • Positively
  • Surprisingly
  • Unquestionably
  • Without a doubt
  • Objectively
  • In fact

To Argue/Make a Suggestion

  • . . . seems to warrant
  • . . . contend/s
  • . . . argue/s
  • . . . justify/ies
  • This observation is supported by
  • To plead
  • . . . suggest/s
  • The suggestion is valid
  • . . . propose/s
  • . . . claim/s
  • . . .state/s
  • . . . clearly proof enough
  • If I had the choice
  • . . . examine/s
  • . . . assert/s

To Show Disagreement

  • . . . object/s (to)
  • . . . disagree/s with
  • . . . contradict/s
  • . . . doesn’t/don’t support
  • . . . is/are invalid
  • These arguments, one by one, can be challenged
  • . . . is absurd/ridiculous/unfounded/illogical
  • . . . not to be taken seriously
  • . . . has/have no scientific basis
  • . . . dispute/s

To Choose One Option over

  • Another
  • . . . might be the better option
  • . . . make/s it a better policy
  • It’s beneficial/better/positive
  • It’s detrimental/worse/negative
  • . . . is true/false
  • The assertion that…
  • . . . seem/s to offer strong arguments for/against
  • . . . is/are better/worse than

To Show Similarity

  • Just as
  • As . . . as
  • In the same way
  • Similarly
  • Likewise
  • As in/as with/as was/etc.

To Show Purpose

  • In order to
  • For
  • So that
  • So as to

To Show Evidence/Give an

  • Example
  • As evidence of
  • The legitimacy of
  • Such as
  • For example
  • A few of these are
  • In the case of
  • In addition
  • For one thing . . . for another

To State the Problem

  • The problem is (how)
  • The question is
  • What is being asked/challenged

To State the Options

  • One option is
  • The other option is

Introduction

More and more families are choosing to have only one child.
The trend nowadays is towards having smaller families.
Over the past ten years or so the media have frequently carried reports of ...
Recent research indicates that the number of teenagers who smoke is increasing.
Hardly a week goes by without another report of ... appearing in the media.
This raises the issue of whether ...
Although most people would generally agree that ... few would deny that ...
There are differing explanations \ opinions as to why….
It is first necessary to explain…
In the following essay will be examined.

People (sometimes) claim that … but I feel that ...
It is often said/argued that ... However, it seems to me that ...
It is a fact that ...
Over the past few months/years, it seems that …
Recently, we have all become concerned that …
Nowadays, we are all realising that ...
In the past, people used to …, but now ...
These days, it seems that ….

Giving opinion

It seems to me that ... I would also say that ...
I am convinced that ...
I am inclined to believe that ...
There is no doubt in my mind that ...
One of the drawbacks of ... is ...
However, one of the benefits is that ...
I think that 
In my opinion \  in my own view  \  to my mind 
This is a matter of opinion 
In my experience 
As far as I know 
As far as I am concerned 
To tell you the truth 
I am convinced that 
I firmly believe that 
As I see it,
To me,
From my personal point of view,
It seems to me that
I personally believe that
From my perspective
To my way of thinking
It appears to me that

Presenting arguments

One justification often given for ... is that...
Advocates \ Proponents would claim that ...
Those who object to ... often argue that ...
Another objection is that ...
However, it should not be forgotten that ...
... are opposed to ... on the grounds that ...
From the point of view of ...

Describing causes

One factor which has led to ... is ...
As regards the causes for this, ...
Concerning the causes for this, ...
As for the causes, ...
One of the factors which has brought this about is ...
The problem often stems from ...
The situation has been exacerbated by ...
... has only made the situation worse.
One consequence of ... is ...

Proposing measures

As regards the most appropriate response to this situation, one suggestion would be to ...
The first step to be taken would be to ...
To alleviate the situation people should ...
In addition they ought to ...
To begin to tackle this situation society \ individuals \ the government need \ s to ...
... would certainly ameliorate the situation.
This can only be dealt with if ...
To overcome this problem, ...
Were the government to ..., the situation would doubtless improve.
Individuals can do a great deal to ...
The burden of responsiblity lies in the hands of ...
It is vitally important that ...
Legislation should be introduced to control ...
It would be a grave error if we ...

Contrasting

Another important distinction between … and … is that…
I would like to distinguish between ... and ....
The essential difference is that…
The essential point on which I differ is that…
There is however an important difference between ... and ....
There are some respects in which … differs from ...
This difference clearly cannot be explained by…
We must here make a distinction.
Whereas
Withal (к тому же)
Nonetheless 
Notwithstanding 
Even so 
Even though
However,
But
On the contrary,
On the other hand,
Differ from
Although
Though
Otherwise
Instead
Alternatively

Generalizing

Generally,
Generally speaking,
Overall,
On the whole,
In general,
By and large,
It seems to me that
All in all,
Basically,
Essentially,
As a rule,
All things considered
For the most part

Expressing certainty

Absolutely
Certainly,
Definitely,
Doubtless,
Genuinely
Indubitably
Needless to say
No doubt,
Of course,
Rightfully
Sincerely
Surely
Truly
Undoubtedly,
Without doubt

Expressing partial agreement

Almost,
Dubious (сомнительный)
Dubitable (Open to doubt or suspicion)
In a way,
More likely
More or less,
Most likely
Possibly
Probably
So to speak, 
To some extent,
Up to a point,

Showing cause

Due to
Because
Because of
Owing to

Showing effect

Therefore,
As a result,
Consequently,
For this reason,
Thus,
So,
thereby
Eventually,
Hence,
The reason why

Marking sequence

After
After this  \  that
Afterwards
As soon as
At the same time
Before
Currently
During
Eventually
Finally
First of all,
First, Second, etc.
Firstly,
Following this
Formerly
Henceforth (отныне, впредь)
Hitherto, Heretofore (до сих пор)
Immediately
In due time
Initially
Last
Lastly,
Later
Meanwhile
Next
Once
Previously
Simultaneously
Since
Soon
Subsequently
Then,
To begin with
While

Adding Information

Another possibility is that…
As well as
At the same time it is true to say…
Besides
Furthermore
In addition…
In any case…
It should also be emphasized that…
It should also be noted that…
Likewise
Mention should also be made of…
Moreover
Related to these arguments is the critique that…
Similarly
The corollary of this is that…
The key point to note is that…
The same can be said of…
The same is true of…
There were other factors which arguably counted for more.
This idea is supported by
This is further illustrated by….
This is further shown by the fact that….
What’s more

Expressing condition

Given
If
In case
Providing
One the condition of 
Provided that
Provision, proviso (A stipulated condition)
Stipulate (Specify as a condition or requirement in a contract)
Unless
Whenever
Whether

Weighing up arguments

On the one hand ... on the other hand 
To consider the advantages and disadvantages
Arguments for and against 
To discuss the pros and cons 
In theory ... in reality 
Both... and... 
Not only ... but also 
As a matter of fact 
By no means  \  not at all

Giving examples

A classic illustration often cited is…
Another example of this may be given.
et cetera  \  and so on  \  and so forth 
In particular  \  particularly 
In the … case this was perhaps the most obvious.
More detailed studies show that…
Only in one respect does the advantage seem to be with…
The evidence of … is even more obvious in the case of…
The origins of … can be traced back to…
This was by no means unique.
This was typified by…
To illustrate this point 
To take yet another illustration…

Giving explanations

A general explanation remains difficult to find \ elusive.
How are we to explain …?
If one looks at … in historical perspective, one finds that …
Moreover it is at least arguable that…
Partly for this reason it was inevitable that…
The first thing we notice is the…
The main reason it happened was that…
The reality was at best that…
This achievement was primarily due to…
This applies especially to…
This in turn means that…
This is the key to the problem.
This means that…
This takes us to the heart of the matter
This was one of the most important reasons why…
Yet the important point to note is that…

Arguing

At the same time it could be argued that…
For one thing it could be argued that…
Indeed, it might be argued that…
It is interesting to speculate on what would happen if…
It is tempting to pose another question.
It may well be asked how…
It might be argued that…
Nor is it entirely fanciful to suggest that…
Of course it could be argued that…
Still, there is no denying that…
This is not to say that there are not…
Though it may seem a stretch to compare x with y…
More controversial is the question as to whether…

Concluding

All in all it seems to me that ...
All things considered, ...
Consequently
Corollary (естественный вывод)
Finally \ Lastly,
For the aforementioned reasons, there is no doubt that
Given these facts
Hence
In all due fairness
In conclusion,
In the final analysis this may be the best explanation of all.
It is difficult to escape the conclusion that…
It seems not implausible to link … with …
Judged by this criteria…
Judged by this measure…
Last but not least 
More generally it seems hard to deny that…
Nothing can detract from the central fact that…
On balance, I tend to believe that ...
Overall
Summing up
Taking everything into account \ consideration,
The obvious conclusion to be drawn is that ...
Thence (From that fact or reason or as a result)
Therefore
Therefrom (From that circumstance or source)
Thereof (Of or concerning this or that, From that circumstance or source)
Thus
Thusly (In the way indicated)
To conclude,
To put it briefly
To put it simply…
to sum up  \  to summarize we can say 
To sum up the foregoing,
To summarize
With good judgment, 
……………………. it can be said \ claimed that …
……………………. it seems \ appears that…
……………………. it would seem that…
……………………. it is likely \ unlikely \ possible \ foreseeable that …
……………………. it is clear \ obvious that…
…………………….. there is no \ little doubt that …
…………………….. it is true to say that …
…………………….. although it must be said that …
……………………. it may be concluded \ said that …

 

Other useful phrases

‘it’

It can be argued that…
It is important to recognize that…
It is only to be expected that…
It is also worth noting that…
It is likely that…
It is possible that…
It is anticipated that…
It is not clear whether…
It is significant that…
It is assumed that…
It is not surprising then, that…
It is sometimes suggested that…
It is clear that…
It is not surprising to find that…
It is unlikely that…
It is difficult to see…
It is not unreasonable to suggest that…
It is worth pointing out that…
It is essential, therefore, that…
It is not, however, simply a matter of…
It may seem surprising to say that…
It is evident that…
It is noteworthy that…
It seems that…
It is for this reason that…
It is now clear that…
It would seem clear that…
It is important to note that…
It is often argued that…

‘one’

one could envisage
one might expect
one need only turn to
one could argue that
one might ask
The question one seeks to answer is
one could seriously question
one must remember

To describe

To portray
To depict (изображать, описывать, обрисовывать)
To exhibit
To illustrate
To expose
To present
To paint a portrait
To limn (описывать, изображать, украшать)
To delineate (очерчивать, обрисовывать)
To represent
To demonstrate
To constitute - Form or compose
To embody - (v) Represent or express in tangible form (embodiment); embodied - (adj)
To prove

To manifest - Provide evidence for; stand as proof of
To attest - Provide evidence for
To testify - Provide evidence for
To certify - Provide evidence for
To endorse, indorse - Give support or one's approval to
To shew - Establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment
To establish
To instance - (v) Clarify by giving an example of
To exemplify - (v) Clarify by giving an example of
To compare or contrast

Positive words

magnificent
grandeur - The quality of being magnificent or splendid or grand, the quality of being exalted in character or ideals or conduct
magnanimous - The quality of being exalted in character or ideals or conduct
fantastic
fantastical
phenomenal
wonderful
extraordinary
marvelous
superb
good
fine
great
avid - Emotionally desirable
avid ambition to succeed
excellent
spectacular
prodigious
grand
brilliant
glorious - Bringing great happiness and thankfulness
illustrious - Widely known and esteemed
notable - Worthy of notice
respected
impressive
splendid
splendiferous - Having great beauty and splendor
resplendent - Having great beauty and splendor, Richly and brilliantly colorful
flamboyant - Elaborately or excessively ornamented, Richly and brilliantly colorful
redoubtable - Having or worthy of pride
formidable - Extremely impressive in strength or excellence
prowess
superior
terrific
tremendous
wondrous - Extraordinarily good
wonderful
sublime - Inspiring awe, Lifted up or set high
flair - natural talent
knack - A special way of doing something
outshine - Attract more attention and praise than others
paramount - Having superior power and influence
predominant
preponderating
prevailing

To show intelligence

profound
shrewd – hardheaded (practical experience and observation) intelligence
astute
acumen - Shrewdness shown by keen insight
insightful
savvy - The cognitive condition of someone who understands
cognition - The psychological result of perception, learning and reasoning
genius
smart
sharp
keen
mastermind
Einstein - Someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality
work of art
fine art
maven - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
mavin - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
adept - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
whiz - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
wizard - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field

To intensify

incredibly
exceedingly
toppingly - extremely well
extremely
extraordinarily
truly
really
very
utterly - Completely and without qualification; used informally as intensifiers, With sublimity; in a sublime manner
absolutely
perfectly
sublimely
dramatically
sheer - (adj.) Complete and without restriction or qualification; sometimes used informally as an intensifier; (adv.) Directly "he fell sheer into the water"

It is said

enounced, enunciated - Speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way
pronounced - Speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way
articulated - Express or state clearly
vocalized - Express or state clearly
posited - Put firmly
stated
expressed
reported
alleged - Declared but not proved
averred - Report or maintain, To declare or affirm in a grave manner and formally as true
affirmed, asserted
wrote
composed
indited - Produce a literary work
penned - Produce a literary work
spelt - Indicate or signify
voiced, sounded - Give voice to
demean - Reduce in worth or character, usually verbally

It is noted

remarked
denoted - Be a sign or indication of, "Her smile denoted that she agreed"
observed
commented
mentioned
referred
announced
noticed

Precisely

explicitly
accurately
expressly
exactly
incisively

Numerous

innumerable
many
various
several
diverse
umpteen
umteen
myriad (noun and adj.)

Praise

extol - (v) Praise, glorify, or honor
exalt
glorify
laud
proclaim
revere
idolize
worship
venerate

Call forth

evoke - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
arouse - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
elicit - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
enkindle - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
provoke - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
inflame - Arouse or excite feelings and passions
awake - Stop sleeping
conjure - Evoke or call forth, with or as if by magic
invoke - Evoke or call forth, with or as if by magic
summon - Gather or bring together
instill - deposit gradually

Adding ideas

  • again  
  • also  
  • as well as  
  • besides
  • coupled with  
  • for example (e.g.)
  • for instance
  • furthermore
  • in addition
  • in fact
  • indeed
  • likewise
  • moreover
  • once more
  • similarly
  • that is (i.e.)
  • then too

As expected

  • as a matter of fact
  • for that matter
  • it follows that
  • naturally
  • obviously
  • of course
  • surely
  • to be sure

Restatement

  • in essence  
  • in other words  
  • namely  
  • that is  
  • that is to say  
  • in short  
  • in brief  
  • to put it differently

Cause and effect

  • accordingly
  • and so
  • that’s why
  • as a consequence
  • as a result
  • as might be expected
  • consequently
  • for this purpose  
  • for this reason
  • hence
  • otherwise  
  • since
  • so then  
  • subsequently  
  • then
  • therefore
  • thereupon  
  • thus
  • wherefore

Contrast

  • at the same time
  • but  
  • by the same token  
  • contrast  
  • conversely
  • despite
  • however
  • in contrast
  • in spite of
  • instead  
  • likewise 
  • nevertheless
  • nonetheless
  • not at all
  • notwithstanding
  • on one hand  
  • on the contrary
  • on the other hand
  • rather 
  • similarly  
  • still
  • unlike
  • yet

Sequence

  • at first  
  • first of all  
  • to begin with  
  • in the first place  
  • at the same time 
  • for now  
  • for the time being  
  • the next step  
  • in time  
  • in turn  
  • later on 
  • meanwhile  
  • next  
  • then  
  • soon  
  • the meantime  
  • later  
  • while  
  • earlier 
  • simultaneously  
  • afterward  
  • in conclusion  
  • with this in mind  

Concession

  • although
  • but of course
  • certainly
  • doubtless
  • granted that
  • of course
  • though
  • to be sure
  • to doubt that
  • whereas

Direction

  • here  
  • there  
  • over there  
  • beyond  
  • nearly  
  • opposite  
  • under  
  • above 
  • to the left  
  • to the right 
  • in the distance

Degrees of certainty

  • anyhow
  • anyway
  • certainly
  • doubtless
  • in all likelihood
  • in all probability
  • in any case
  • indeed
  • perhaps
  • possibly
  • probably
  • surely

Qualification

  • especially
  • frequently
  • if
  • in case
  • in general
  • in particular
  • inasmuch
  • lest
  • occasionally
  • particularly
  • provided that
  • specifically
  • unless

Repetition

  • as noted
  • as noted earlier
  • as we have seen
  • besides
  • in any case
  • in fact
  • in other words
  • indeed
  • to put it another way
  • to repeat

Similarity

  • comparatively  
  • coupled with  
  • correspondingly  
  • identically  
  • likewise  
  • similar  
  • moreover  
  • together with

Emphasis

  • above all  
  • chiefly  
  • with attention to  
  • especially  
  • particularly  
  • singularly

Generalizing

  • as a rule  
  • as usual  
  • for the most part 
  • generally  
  • generally speaking  
  • ordinarily  
  • usually

Exemplifying

  • as an example  
  • as an illustration  
  • chiefly  
  • especially  
  • for example  
  • for instance  
  • for one thing  
  • illustrated with  
  • in particular  
  • in this case
  • including  
  • markedly  
  • namely  
  • particularly   
  • specifically  
  • such as

Exception

  • aside from  
  • barring  
  • besides  
  • except  
  • excepting  
  • excluding  
  • exclusive of  
  • other than  
  • outside of  
  • save

Summary

  • all in all
  • all things considered  
  • briefly  
  • by and large  
  • finally
  • in a word
  • in any case  
  • in any event  
  • in brief
  • in conclusion
  • in short
  • in summary
  • in summation
  • in the final analysis  
  • in the long run  
  • on balance  
  • on the whole
  • therefore
  • to conclude
  • to make a long story short
  • to sum it up
  • to summarize
Категорія: Writing Spot | Додав: Tan (10.09.2016)
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