Головна | Важливі матеріали | Реєстрація | Вхід
Вівторок, 22.05.2018, 13:30
Вітаю Вас Гість | RSS
Меню сайту
Категорії розділу
Writing Spot [14]
Word-Lists [5]
Word-Lists for General English Course - 1 Year
English Grammar [26]
Grammar Rules

Онлайн всього: 1
Гостей: 1
Користувачів: 0
Форма входу
Головна » Статті » English Grammar

Articles: Proper, Geographical, etc names.



4.1. The Use of Articles with Personal Names

The names of people usually have no article: Anna Flintstone, Christian Dobbs, Mr Taylor, Dr Stone, Captain Farrell, Lord Chesterton, etc.

Referring to family members normally requires no article either: Father, Dad, Mother, Mum, Granny, Grandpa, Uncle, Aunt, etc.


1. THE is used:

  1. to refer to a whole family or some of its members: the Davises, the Dicksons, etc. The Price sisters have opened a boutique.
  2. with names of persons modified by a particularizing attribute: You are not the Andrew Manson I once married.
  3. with names of persons modified by adjectives or participles: The astonished Tom couldn't say a word.

NOTE: a) No article is used when personal names are preceded by the adjectives old, young, poor, good, mad, kind. The adjectives can be capitalized and become part of the name: Young Forsyte, Poor Uncle Roger.

b) The is optional when the title is a complement: Nixon became (the) President of the USA. Blair became (the) Premier of the UK.

c) The is omitted when as is used or implied: Schroeder was elected Chancellor of Germany.

  1. with names of persons used as common nouns: Mozart has been called the Raphael of music.
  2. to emphasise uniqueness (with names of famous people): I saw Richard Geare the other day. – Do you mean the Richard Geare, the Hollywood star?
  3. in certain titles: the Reverend Peter Collins, the Prince of Wales (but Prince Charles), the Duke of Westminster, the Duchess of York. Also: William the Conqueror, Ivan the Terrible, Alfred the Great.

NOTE: If a title is followed by a proper name no article is used: Queen Elizabeth II (the second), Prince Philippe, General Powell, Colonel Bridges.


2. A/AN is used:

  1. when the speaker or writer is suggesting that the reader or listener does not know the person, something like "a certain" or "someone called...": A Mr Jones called while you were out (некий, какой-то).
  2. with a well-known name associated with typical features: He is a Newton in his field.
  3. to denote a representative of a family: "Florence will never be a Domby," said Mrs Chick.
  4. to refer to a product or work by someone: a Chaplin film, a Channell perfume, a Laura Ashley dress, a Steinway piano, a Hemingway novel, etc. Would you recognize a Titian? (a painting)
  5.  to refer to a copy or instance of something, especially a newspaper or magazine:  Could you buy a Cosmopolitan for me on your way home?


4.2. The Use of Articles with Geographical/Topographical Features.

With place names the use of articles is fixed; some have the definite article and some have no article. There are some hints:

a) plural nouns have the: the Bahamas, the Pennines

b) constructions made up of two nouns separated by of tend to have the: the Strait of Dover.


1. THE is used:

  1. with cardinal points and regions: the North /South/West/East, The Middle East, the west of England, the Balkans, the Lake District, the Prairies, the Mongolian Stepps.
  2. with a few countries that have plural nouns as their names: the Netherlands, the Philippines.
  3. with a few countries where the is optional: (the) Sudan, (the) Lebanon, (the) Yemen, (the) Gambia.
  4. with the countries: the Argentine (or Argentina), the Vatican.
  5. with the countries whose names include the words kingdom, republic, state, union: the United Kingdom, the United States of America, the Republic of Ireland, the Soviet Union.

This is the same with abbreviated alternatives: the UK, the USA, the USSR, etc.

  1. with oceans, seas, rivers, canals: the Atlantic (Ocean), the Mediterranean (Sea), the Danube (River), the Panama Canal.
  2. with deserts: the Sahara(Desert), the Gobi (Desert), the Kara-Kum (Desert).
  3. with mountain ranges: the Rockies, the Himalayas, the Carpathians, the Alps, the Grampian Hills.
  4. with groups of islands: the British Isles, the Channel Islands.
  5. with other sea features: the Gulf Stream, the English Channel, the Bosporus, the Strait of Gibraltar, etc.


2. No article is used:

  1. with names of continents, most countries, cities, towns and villages: Asia, Europe, Germany, Manchester, Tonbridge, Singleton.

NOTE: a) the City (of London), the Hague (the is a fixed part of the place name);

 b) the is used to pick out a particular "version" of something: The Paris of my youth no longer exists. This isn't the London I used to know.

  1. with geographical areas and administrative regions of countries: Central Asia, Inner London, North (South) Carolina, Upper Austria, Bavaria, Quebec.
  2. with lakes, individual mountains, islands and bays: Lake Geneva, Lake Baikal, Lake Ontario (but: the Lake of Geneva, the Ontario, the Great Salt Lake); Everest, Mont Blanc, Kilimanjaro, Ararat (but: the Matterhorn, the Eiger); Easter Island, Malter, Cyprus, Haiti (but: the Isle of Capri, the Isle of Man.); San Francisco Bay (but the Bay of Biscay).


4.3. The Use of Articles with Other Proper Names

1. THE is used:

  1. a) with nationality words when the adjective ends in -sh, -ch, -ese, or -ss: the British, the Dutch, the Chinese, the Swiss (referring to the group as a whole)

b) the same meaning is expressed by plural nationality nouns with the or without it: (the) Americans, (the) Russians, (the) Italians.

  1. with historical references: the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Dark Ages, the Bronze Age; but: Ancient Greece, Medieval Europe, Roman Britain, pre-war Germany, post-war France.
  2. with historical events: the Industrial Revolution, the Civil War, the Great Patriotic War.
  3. with public bodies and political institutions: the Army, the Government, the Police, the Supreme Council, the High Court; the House of Commons/Lords, the Foreign Ministry; but: Parliament, Congress.
  4. before the names of the universities with of: the University of Edinburgh, the University of London; but: London University, Moscow University.
  5. before some places, buildings with of: the Bank of England, the House of Parliament, the Tower of London.
  6. with pubs: the White Horse, the Green Rider, the Three Mariners.
  7. with cinemas: the Odeon, the Gaumont, the Classic.
  8. with hotels, restaurants, theatres, hospitals: the Savoy (Hotel), the Ritz (Hotel), the Bombay Restaurant, the Coliseum (Theatre), the London Hospital. But if a place-name includes another name no article is used: Bertram's Hotel, Leon's (Restaurant) Her Majesty's Theatre, Guy's (Hospital), Covent Garden, Carnegie Hall. 
  9. with museums and galleries: the British Museum, the Fine Arts Museum, the Tate Gallery, the National Gallery.
  10. with names of ships and trains: the Titanic, the Queen Elizabeth, the Orient Express.

NOTE: Spacecraft tend to have no article: Challenger, Shuttle, Apollo, Soyuz.

  1. with newspapers: the Times, the Guardian, the Daily Telegraph.
  2. with the names of musical groups which have a plural noun: the Rolling Stones, the Beatles, the Eagles, but: Pink Floyd, Queen, Smokey.
  3. with names of sporting events: the Olympic Games, the World Cup, the Cup Final, the Grand National, the British Open. But names taken from the place where the event occurs take no article: Wimbledon (for tennis), Ascot and Epsom (for horse-racing events).
  4. with titles of stories and novels: "The Lord of the Flies" by W. Golding, "The Catcher in the Rye" by D. Salinger, "The Apple Tree" by J.Galsworthy.


2. No article is used:

  1. with airports, bridges, chains of shops, parks, stations: Heathrow, Waterloo Bridge, Selfridges (shops), Harrods  (store), Central Park, Hyde Park, Paddington Station, but the Golden Gate Bridge, the Scotch House (shop).
  2. with names of business and charities (even when an abbreviation is used): General Motors, Sony, Shell, BA (British Airways), IBM, Oxfam,  Christian Aid. If the word "company" is mentioned the is used:  the Bell Telephone Company, the General Electric Company,  but General Electric (GEC).
  3. with streets and squares: Bond Street, Portobello Road, Piccadilly Circus, Madison Avenue; but: the High Street, the Strand, the Drive, the Mall.
  4. with titles of magazines: Newsweek, Punch, Which, Time.
  5. with some places of interest: Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey, Windsor Castle.
  6. with names of religious and other festivals: Christmas, Easter, Victory Day, Thanksgiving Day, etc.


E x e r c i s e s

4.1. Read the sentences and mark where the should be.

  1. I have been to United Kingdom, Germany and Soviet Union, but never to Poland. (the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union) (2)
  2. Amazon in Brazil is the longest river in South America.
  3. Japan and United States are separated by Pacific Ocean.
  4. Liverpool is in north of England, fairly close to Wales.
  5. I would love to go to Jamaica, Bahamas or somewhere else in Caribbean.
  6. Suez Canal flows through north of Egypt from Port Said to Suez, joining Mediterranean to Gulf of Suez and Red Sea.
  7. Lake Windermere in north-west of England is one of the largest lakes on British Isles.
  8. Iran has borders with Iraq, Turkey, Russia, Afghanistan and West Pakistan.
  9. Mount Everest is in Himalayas on the border between Nepal and Tibet which is part of People's Republic of China.
  10. Biarritz stands on the mouth of Adour river which flows into Gulf of Gascony in Bay of Biscay.

4.2. Insert the proper articles where necessary.

  1.  – John Din, ….. British exchange postgraduate, is studying ….. Russian dialects. He has been staying at ….. Moscow university for over six months. John has spent ….. great deal of his time in ….. library.
  2. Mr Brown invited Victorov to visit ….. Houses of Parliament. Mr Brown is ….. M.P. for Leeds.
  3. There are over 900 peers in ….. House of Lords.
  4. There are 630 members in ….. House of Commons.
  5. No ….. King or ….. Queen of England can come into ….. House of Commons.
  6. They saw ….. front bench on ….. Speaker's right. This bench is for ….. Prime Minister and ….. leading members of ….. government.
  7. I wonder what the members of ..... Parliament shout when they like what ….. speaker is saying.
  8. My train leaves from ….. Waterloo Station at 7.10 p.m.
  9. ….. Queen Elizabeth II won't speak on TV tomorrow.
  10. ….. West End is the symbol of wealthy and luxurious life.

4.3. Correct any errors. Put in the where necessary.

  1. While we were in London we stayed at The Royal Hotel in the Albert Street near the Trafalgar Square.
  2. On the first morning we went to British Museum and had lunch at McDonald's in the Church Street.
  3. In the evening we went to a pub just off the Leicester  Square , then we went to a play at the National Theatre.
  4. Next day we went to Houses of Parliament and Westminster Abbey and had lunch at the Peking Restaurant.
  5. We looked in Evening Standard newspaper and found there was a good film at Odeon cinema near Piccadilly Circus.

4.4.  Insert the if necessary.

  1. I went to ….. France last year, but I haven't been to ..... Netherlands yet.
  2. I live in ….. Tverskaya Street.
  3. ….. Thames flows through ….. London.
  4. ….. United Kingdom includes ….. Great Britain and ….. Northern Ireland.
  5. St. Bernard dogs are named after a monastery high up in ….. Alps.
  6. ….. USA is ….. fourth largest country in ….. world after ….. Russia, ….. Canada and ….. Republic of China.
  7. ….. English Channel is between ….. Great Britain and ….. France.
  8.  ….. Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre  of ….. London.
  9.  When a student, Tom spent two years in ….. Africa.
  10.  ….. Houses of Parliament has over 1.000 rooms, and 2 miles of corridors.
  11. Where's ….. John's raincoat?

4.5. Insert the where necessary.

  1. Milan is in the north of Italy.
  2. Everest was first climbed in 1953.
  3. Last year we visited Canada and United States.
  4. Africa is much larger than Europe.
  5. South of England is warmer than north.
  6. We went to Spain for our holidays and swam in Mediterranean.
  7. Tom has visited most countries in western Europe. 
  8. A friend of mine used to work as a reporter in Middle East.
  9. Next year we are going skiing in Swiss Alps.
  10. Malta has been a republic since 1974.
  11. Nile is longest river in Africa.

4.6. Fill in the blanks where necessary.

  1. Does Mark speak – Spanish?
  2. Show me ….. Canary Islands on this map, please.
  3. How much does it cost to stay at ….. Grand Hotel?
  4. ….. Volga flows into ….. Caspian Sea.
  5. Although the north of Scotland is called ….. Highlands the mountains aren't high there – ….. Ben Nevis (1343 m) is ….. highest peak.
  6. I've made up my mind to go to ….. Black Sea next summer.
  7. ….. Lake Baikal is the deepest one in the world.
  8. On Wednesday ….. Moscow Times published an article about ….. Marcus Webb.
  9. ….. Urals are old and not very high.
  10. Every morning during breakfast  bagpipes are played outside ….. Queen's dining-room in ….. Buckingham Palace.

4.7. Answer these questions. Find out the answers if you don't know them.

  1. What is the longest river in the world? (Amazon/ Nile/ Rhine). – The Amazon is the longest river in the world.
  2. Where is Bolivia? (Africa/ South America/ North America) –…..
  3. Where is Ethiopia? (Asia/ South America/ Africa) – …..
  4. Of which country is Manila the capital? (Indonesia/ Philippines/ Japan) – …..
  5. Of which country is Stockholm the capital? (Norway/ Denmark/ Sweden) – …..
  6. Which country lies between Mexico and Canada? ( Venezuela/ El Salvador/ United States of America) – …..
  7. Which is the largest country in the world? (United States of America/ China/ Russia) – …..
  8. Which is the largest continent? (Africa/ South America/ Asia) – …..
  9. What is the name of the mountain range in the west of North America? (Rocky Mountains/ Andes/ Alps) – …..
  10. What is the name of the ocean between America and Asia (Atlantic/ Pacific/ Indian Ocean) – …..
  11. What is the name of the ocean between Africa and Australia? (Atlantic/ Pacific/ Indian Ocean) – …..
  12. What is the name of the sea between England and France? (Mediterranean Sea/ English Channel/ French Sea) – …..
  13. What is the name of the sea between Africa and Europe? (Black Sea/ Red Sea/ Mediterranean) – …..
  14. What is the name of the sea between Britain and Norway? (Norwegian Sea/ English Channel/ North Sea) – …..
  15. Which river flows through Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade? – (Rhine/ Danube/ Volga) – …..
  16. What joins the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans? (Suez Canal/Panama Canal) – …..

4.8. Complete these sentences if necessary.

  1. I'd like to see MrSmith please. – Do you mean the MrSmith who works in ….. box office or ….. other Mr Smith?
  2. Did you come by ….. air? – No, I came by ….. sea. I had a lovely voyage on ….. Queen Elizabeth II.
  3. ….. most of ….. stories that ….. people tell about ….. Irish  aren't true.
  4. When ….. Titanic was crossing ….. Atlantic she struck an iceberg  which tore a huge hole in her bow. …..  captain ordered …..  crew to help …..  passengers into …..  boats. 
  5. We're going to ….. tea with ….. Smiths today, aren't we? Shall we take ….. car? – We can go by ….. car if you wash ….. car first. We can't go to ….. Mrs Smith's in a car all covered with ….. mud.
  6. Would you like to hear a story? – No, I've heard ….. stories about ….. Englishmen, ….. Irishmen, and ….. Scotsmen before and they are all ….. same.
  7. But my is not a typical story. In my story ….. Scotsman is generous, ….. Irishman is logical and ….. Englishman is romantic. – Oh, if it's a fantastic story I'll listen with ….. pleasure.

4.9. Insert the where necessary and retell the story.

There is more water than land on our planet. (1) The largest and deepest ocean in (2) ….. world is (3) ….. Pacific. Then comes (4) ….. Atlantic. (5) ….. Indian ocean is only a little smaller. (6) ….. smallest ocean is (7) ….. Arctic. One of (8) ….. longest rivers in (9) ….. world is (10) ….. Mississippi, (11) ….. largest sea is (12) ….. Mediterranean, (13) ….. deepest lake is (14) ….. Lake Baikal. Large masses of (15) ….. land are called (16) ….. continents. They are (17) ….. Europe and Asia, (18) ….. North and South America, (19) ….. Australia and Antarctica.

There are mountain chains in many parts of (20) ….. world. Some of them such as (21) ….. Urals are old, others like (22) …..Caucasus are much younger. (23)….. highest mountain chain, which is called (24) ….. Himalayas, is situated in (25)….. Asia.

4.10. Use the proper article where necessary.

(A)          The USA occupies southern part of North America and stretches for thousands of kilometres from Pacific Ocean in west to Atlantic Ocean in east. It has area of over 9.8 mln sq km.

In north USA borders on Canada and in south it borders on Mexico.

Rocky Mountains in west have many high ranges. High at peak is Mount Whitney 14,495 feet.

Among longest rivers is Mississippi which flows into Gulf of Mexico.

Population of USA is over 237.2 mln.

USA is highly industrial country. It is leading state.

(B)          Netherlands is situated in north-western Europe. Country has area of over 41,000 sq  km.

Netherlands  borders on Germany in east and on Belgium in south. It is washed by North Sea in west.

Population of country is over 14 mln.

Netherlands is not very rich in mineral resources. It is a highly industrialized state. 

Категорія: English Grammar | Додав: Tan (09.11.2014)
Переглядів: 2470
Всього коментарів: 0
Друзі сайту

Copyright MyCorp © 2018Створити безкоштовний сайт на uCoz